What's behind me? “Behind me is the last drawing I made with my friends on my classroom's blackboard, and then when the rockets and shelling started, we were told to run home from school. Since then we haven't been back, until today when I asked my father to take me to my classroom, to my school I love and miss very much” - Noor age 10 from Abyan.
Children throughout #Yemen were waiting to go back to school on November 1, 2015. This photo from Khanfar District, Abyan, was shared by Mothana Badoryes from UNICEF's partner FMF.
According to UNICEF's latest Situation Report, 21.1 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance, of which 9.9 million are children and 1.4 million are internally displaced. 505 children have been killed and 702 children have been injured as a result of the conflict. Since the start of the conflict, 34 per cent or 1.8 million of Yemen's school-aged children have been out of school and ongoing insecurity delayed the start of the 2015/2016 school year. About 1,000 schools have been damaged or occupied. UNICEF launched a Back to School (B2S) campaign and organized Community Puppet Shows for conflict-affected children; the shows included messages on returning to school. Similar messages also targeted parents and community members. Schools reopened on 1 November 2015. UNICEF printed learning materials for catch-up classes and teachers in 16,000 schools will refer to these materials for the first month of school to prepare students.
NEW REPORT: Yemen: Childhood Under Threat
An average of eight children are being killed or maimed every day in Yemen as a direct result of the conflict gripping the country, according to a report released by UNICEF. Yemen: Childhood Under Threat says that nearly 400 children have been killed and over 600 others injured since the violence escalated some four months ago. The report also outlines the different dimensions of the crisis facing children including:
- Children recruited or used in the conflict has more than doubled – from 156 in 2014 to 377 so far verified in 2015.
- 15.2 million people lack access to basic health care, with 900 health facilities closed since March 26.
- 1.8 million children are likely to suffer from some form of malnutrition by the end of the year.
- 20.4 million people are in need of assistance to establish or maintain access to safe water and sanitation due to fuel shortages, infrastructure damage and insecurity.
- Nearly 3,600 schools have closed down, affecting over 1.8 million children.
In the last 30 years coverage and enrolment have increased remarkably, but Yemen is among the countries with the lowest gross enrollment ratio.
Some 1.2 million primary aged children are out of school (30%), along with 402,284 lower secondary aged children (22%). A further 401,544 pre-primary school aged children are also out of school (92%).
Dropout rates at the primary level are 16% and 11% at lower secondary.
At particular risk of being excluded from school are: girls, children in rural areas, poor children and children with uneducated parents.
Child labour affects 21% of out-of-school children aged 6 to 13. These are mostly unpaid or family workers.
In conflict areas, schools have been destroyed or occupied by armed forces, teachers and pupils cannot get to class and teaching hours are often reduced.
Al-Muhamasheen minority children face poverty as well as discrimination and abuse at school.
Disabled children are sometimes refused access to school, due to shortages in teaching facilities, learning materials and staff. According to the 2005 Household Budget survey, 41% of disabled children are out of school.
Capacity is often lacking. This includes government institutions, inadequately qualified professionals and a poor education management information system.
Malnutrition and stunting, which affect almost 50% of children, result in low grades, repetition and dropout.
Social attitudes often undervalue education. At the same time, traditional support for early marriage and child labour also lead to dropout.
Poverty is a major cause of children being excluded from school.
Difficult terrain, limited infrastructure and dispersed populations make it hard for children to get to school.
Educational quality is often low. A recent USAID study found that most Grade 3 students are illiterate.
Poor management and limited human capacity, including a lack of qualified teachers – especially female teachers – and monitoring mechanisms, and an overly bureaucratic approach to providing education and certification for both students and teachers.
High population growth makes it difficult to absorb annual increases in new students.
POLICIES AND STRATEGIES
The National Basic Education Development Strategy (NBEDS, 2003–2015) aims to increase enrolment in basic education, particularly for girls and in rural areas.
The Ministry of Education has invested in quality education by training teachers and school principals in administration and management, establishing father and mother councils, developing new curricula and providing social counselling. However, there has been no effort to measure the impact of these inputs on student performance and it is quite possible that they have had little effect.
The National Basic Education Strategy (NBEDS) has no specific policies or strategies targeting out-of-school children. In addition, if children drop out of school, it is difficult for them to re-enrol because the system lacks support mechanisms to help them catch up.
However, the MOE has developed policies/strategies that indirectly address out of school children, including abolishing school fees, offering conditional cash transfers and school grants, providing free school kits and food rations, and raising awareness. It has also established a committee to plan and supervise education emergency services.
- Establish a higher council for basic education similar to the Higher Council for Motherhood and Childhood (HCMC) and/or collaborate with different sectors, responsible ministries, development partners, NGOs and others on programmes and activities that target exclusionary factors.
- Conduct campaigns at different levels to foster support for education.
- Abolish school fees in poor areas and prohibit schools from substituting other fees.
- Support the return of out-of-school children to class, for example through remedial lessons.
- Strengthen the institutional capacity of the MOE and change its focus to bringing children into school and keeping them there.
- Improve data collection at the MOE, the school level and nationally.
- Improve teacher training.
- Make better use of limited resources by focussing on learning outcomes, not inputs to the school system.
- Find ways to involve more female teachers.
- Involve parents and communities in supporting schools.
- Focus on the most vulnerable children.
- Improve educational quality, for example through revising the curriculum, ensuring it is taught in all areas and reducing teacher absenteeism.
REPORT AND FACT SHEETS
Data and charts
Classification of the out-of-school population (Dimensions 2 and 3) by school exposure
Out-of-school children by background characteristics (Dimensions 2 and 3)
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics country profile
- Global Partnership for Education country profile
- Educate a Child country profile
- TIMSS 2011 profile
- World Bank Yemen overview
- Yemen Education Sector Plan 2013-2015
- World Bank SABER Country Report on teachers
- World Bank SABER Country Report on workforce development
- World Bank SABER Country Report on early childhood development
- UNICEF: Yemen: Childhood Under Threat
- Amnesty International: ‘Our Kids Are Bombed' Schools Under Attack in Yemen
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